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Automated brake actuators for trucks (Autonomous Revers Braking)

July 2020

Analytical Report (full version)

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Analytical Report (full version)

Automated brake actuators for trucks (Autonomous Revers Braking)
Automated brake actuators for trucks (Autonomous Revers Braking)
July 2020

Automated brake actuators for trucks (Autonomous Revers Braking)

July 2020

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The main goal of a new study by J'son & Partners Consulting was to analyze the world experience in the implementation of automated devices in the braking systems of cargo vehicles (trucks and tractors with various semi-trailers and platforms, dump trucks, etc.) in order to prevent accidents during loading and unloading operations, as well as reverse driving and maneuvering. Such devices are known as brake actuators or ARB (Automatic Reverse Braking) systems.

 

The need to provide cargo vehicles with automated brake actuators

 

When driving cargo vehicles in reverse, the probability of accidents increases. In addition, uncontrolled movement of the vehicle when parking, loading/unloading, coupling/uncoupling the trailer, also causes injuries to drivers and staff and damages infrastructure. According to statistics, 10% of all accidents in cargo vehicles and up to 40% of accidents in the workplace are associated with the movement of a cargo vehicle in reverse. In order to minimize the likelihood of such workplace accidents associated with cargo vehicles, in addition to implementing obvious organizational measures it is important to use specialized technical means on the vehicle, and first of all, automated brake actuators.

 

Various scenarios of dangerous situations associated with the movement of cargo vehicles in reverse

 

Automated brake actuator is a device consisting of sensors for obstacle detection and signaling, and a mechanism for affecting the vehicle's braking system. Such systems are known worldwide by the acronym ARB (Automatic Reverse Braking) or RAB (Reverse Automatic Braking). The ARB system is activated when the vehicle begins to reverse and responds to an obstacle, including pedestrians, by activating the brakes if a collision is imminent. An ARB system can be installed on vehicles as additional equipment. In general, the existing models of automated brake actuators can be divided into three types:

 

1) Devices that detect the presence of an obstacle when driving in reverse and brake the vehicle (Stop And Reverse)

 

Such devices are integrated into the vehicle's vacuum brake system. They are controlled through special controllers. Obstacle detection sensors are installed in the rear of the vehicle. When an obstacle approaches, they send a signal to the controller, which, in its turn, activates the actuator.

 

2) Devices that detect the occurrence of an obstacle when driving in reverse (Parking sensors)

 

Obstacle detection sensors are installed in the rear of the vehicle. When the vehicle is moving in reverse and an obstacle is approaching, the driver receives warning signals (including video if a camera is installed) that increase as the distance decreases.

 

3) Vehicle braking devices that prevent involuntary movement of the vehicle (Parking brake control)

 

Such devices are integrated into the vehicle's vacuum brake system. They are controlled through special controllers. The actuator receives a signal when the vehicle starts to move without the driver.

 

All three types of automated brake actuators can be installed on all types of cargo vehicles (on a single vehicle or on any type of road trains), but this possibility is determined by both the specific brand of the actuator and the model of the vehicle.

 

Market maturity of the technology, prospects in Russia

 

Despite the fact that automakers are just beginning to offer consumers regular automated braking systems for reverse driving, there have already appeared a large number of manufacturers of ADAS systems that develop and manufacture various automated brake actuators. However, most of the companies that manufacture such systems still have no official representative offices in Russia. At the same time, existing freight transport service stations already offer services for installing certified solutions from some manufacturers.

 

Most manufacturers of automated actuators offer already mass-produced products that can be installed on various vehicles. However, according to the legislation of the Russian Federation and the countries of the Customs Union, the use of such systems implies confirmation of compliance with the technical regulations TR CU 018/2011 "On the safety of wheeled vehicles". As for the development and manufacturing of automated brake actuators in Russia, they have not yet reached the level of mass-produced products. However, in the foreseeable future, we expect the appearance of domestic samples on the market. This is due to the large backlog in the field of various ADAS technologies (radars, lidars, technical vision systems, etc.) that exists in Russia.

 

On the one hand, automated brake actuators are end-to-end technology aimed at the emergence of highly automated vehicles. Their importance among all ADAS technologies is determined by the need to combine both the sensor stack and the control group with the technologies of the decision-making system block. On the other hand, brake actuators are aimed at improving overall driving safety, as well as indirectly reducing the total cost of vehicle maintenance, significantly reducing the total number of accidents.

 

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This information note was prepared by the J'son & Partners Consulting. We work hard to provide factual and prognostic data that fully reflect the situation and available at the time of release. J'son & Partners Consulting reserves the right to revise the data after publication of new official information by individual players. 

 

Copyright © 2020, J'son & Partners Consulting. The media can use the text, graphics, and data contained in this market review only using a link to the source of information - J'son & Partners Consulting or with an active link to the JSON.TV portal

 

™ J'son & Partners [registered trademark] 

 

Detailed research results are presented in the full version of the report:

“Automated brake actuators for trucks”

Contents

ABBREVIATIONS

  1.         INTRODUCTION 

1.1.     PROBLEM STATEMENT

1.2.     DESCRIPTION OF THE METHOD USED TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM

1.3.     SOURCES

  1.         ANALYSIS OF INPUT DATA REQUIRED FOR IMPLEMENTATION

3.        ANALYSIS OF THE POSSIBILITY OF DANGEROUS/EMERGENCY SITUATIONS WHEN DRIVING TRUCKS IN REVERSE

3.1.     WHEN LOADING AND UNLOADING THE TRUCK

3.2.     REVERSE DRIVING TOWARDS A LOADING DOCK IN A SHELTERED WAREHOUSE

3.3.     REVERSE DRIVING TOWARDS A LOADING DOCK IN AN UNSHELTERED WAREHOUSE

3.4.     REVERSE MANEUVERING IN AN UNSHELTERED WAREHOUSE

3.5.     REVERSE MANEUVERING AROUND THE WORKING AREA

3.6.     REVERSE MANEUVERING ON A PUBLIC ROAD

3.7.     REVERSE MANEUVERING ON A WINTER ROAD

3.8.     INCORRECT DISTRIBUTION OF AXIAL LOADS IN A TRUCK

  1.         CLASSIFICATION OF AUTOMATED ACTUATORS

4.1.     TYPES OF SENSORS FOR DETECTING OBSTACLES WHEN DRIVING VEHICLES

4.2.     TYPES OF ACTUATORS AND HOW THEY WORK

Devices that detect the presence of an obstacle when driving in reverse and brake the vehicle (Stop And Reverse) 

Devices that detect the occurrence of an obstacle when driving in reverse (Parking sensors)

Vehicle braking devices that prevent involuntary movement of the vehicle (Parking brake control)

4.3.     ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF AUTOMATED BRAKE ACTUATORS

4.4.     ANALYSIS OF REGULATORY RESTRICTIONS AND BARRIERS TO THE INTRODUCTION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF AUTOMATED TRUCK BRAKE ACTUATORS 

4.5.     IDENTIFICATION OF ALL AVAILABLE TYPES OF RESTRICTIONS AND BARRIERS TO THE INTRODUCTION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF AUTOMATED TRUCK BRAKE ACTUATORS AND RECOMMENDATIONS HOW TO OVERCOME THEM

  1.         ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF MANUFACTURERS AND DEVELOPERS OF AUTOMATED ACTUATORS. ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPLEMENTATION READINESS. FUNCTIONALITY. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

5.1.     DOMESTIC SAMPLES

ParkMaster Truck parking sensor (for trucks, tractors and trailers)

5.2.     FOREIGN SAMPLES

5.2.1. Universal Life Safety Products LLC (USA)

5.2.2. Renault Trucks Runaway Automated Park Brake (Anti-RAPB), France

5.2.3. Reverse Smart (Australia)

 

5.2.4. Solution 4

5.2.5. Solution 5

5.2.6. Solution 6

5.2.7. Solution 7

5.2.8. Solution 8

5.2.9. Solution 9

5.2.10.  Solution 10

5.2.11.  Solution 11

5.2.12.  Solution 12

  1.         CONCLUSIONS        

6.1. CONCLUSIONS ABOUT THE FREQUENCY OF DANGEROUS/EMERGENCY SITUATIONS AND THEIR CLASSIFICATION WHEN DRIVING TRUCKS IN REVERSE.

6.2. CONCLUSIONS ABOUT THE DEVELOPMENT LEVEL OF AUTOMATED ACTUATOR MANUFACTURING IN THE WORLD/RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND THE READINESS TO PROVIDE VEHICLES WITH SUCH SYSTEMS.

6.3. CONCLUSIONS ABOUT THE PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATED ACTUATORS IN THE WORLD/RUSSIA.

6.4. CONCLUSIONS ABOUT THE READINESS OF THE TECHNOLOGY TO BE IMPLEMENTED IN VEHICLES WITH TRAILERS AND SEMI-TRAILERS.

6.4.1. Tent semi-trailer (euro truck)

6.4.2. Unibody truck + a trailer with a coupler

6.4.3. Container truck 

6.4.4. Open side semi-trailer

6.4.5. Open platform

6.4.6. Platform for oversized and heavy cargos

6.4.7. Special equipment transportation trawl 

6.4.8. Dump truck

6.5. CONCLUSIONS ABOUT THE NEED TO MAKE CHANGES TO THE VEHICLE DESIGN

6.6. CONCLUSIONS ABOUT THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF USING AUTOMATED ACTUATORS IN TRUCKS

6.7. CONCLUSIONS ABOUT VARIOUS RESTRICTIONS AND ADMINISTRATIVE BARRIERS TO THE INTRODUCTION OF AUTOMATED ACTUATORS IN TRUCKS AND RECOMMENDATIONS TO OVERCOME THEM

6.8. CONCLUSIONS ABOUT THE IMPACT OF THE INTRODUCTION OF AUTOMATED TRUCK ACTUATORS ON THE TRANSPORTATION SAFETY

6.9. TEST RECOMMENDATIONS

 

List of figures

Fig. 1. Loading in a sheltered warehouse

Fig. 2. Movement around a sheltered warehouse

Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of a brake actuator operation (Stop And Reverse)

Fig. 4. Schematic diagram of a parking sensor operation 

Fig. 5. System 1

Fig. 6. Example of installing system 2 on a fire truck

Fig. 7. Anti-RAPB display in a Renault truck dashboard

Fig. 8. Reverse Smart display and a radar unit on the rear bumper

Fig. 9. Control unit of system 3 in a cab

Fig. 10. Radar of system 3 installed on a quarry dump truck

Fig. 11. Activation handle and indication of system 4 operation in a cab

Fig. 12. System 5 for trailer immobilization by Company X

Fig. 13. Passive transponder X on a driver and a wristband for manual authorization and unlocking the brake

Fig. 14. Differences in sound/color signals ... when approaching an obstacle when driving in reverse

Fig. 15. Radar X and sound/color proximity indication device

Fig. 16. Operation of system 5

Fig. 17. Components of system 5

Fig. 18. System 6

Fig. 19. System 6 Ultrasonic sensor

Fig. 20. System 6 Configuration

Fig. 21. System 7. Cost in various configurations

Fig. 22. System 8

Fig. 23. System 9

Fig. 25. Technical characteristics of system 10

Fig. 26. System 10

Fig. 27. Euro truck

Fig. 28. Coupler

Fig. 29. Container truck

Fig. 30. On-board semi-trailer

Fig. 31. Open platform

Fig. 32. Platform for oversized cargos

Fig. 33. Trawl

Fig. 34. Dump Truck

Fig. 35. Pneumatic brake system