Current state and prospects of 3D Construction Printing (3DCP) in Russia and the world

June 2020

Analytical Report (full version)

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Analytical Report (full version)

Current state and prospects of 3D Construction Printing (3DCP) in Russia and the world
Current state and prospects of 3D Construction Printing (3DCP) in Russia and the world
June 2020

Current state and prospects of 3D Construction Printing (3DCP) in Russia and the world

June 2020

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J'son & Partners Consulting has completed an analysis of the current situation and prospects of 3D printing in construction (3DCP) in Russia and abroad.


3D printing in construction, also known as "Additive manufacturing in construction” (3DCP), is a group of technologies that use the 3D printing method for building and manufacturing construction components, namely, sequential (layer by layer) production of various objects according to a digital (computer, CAD) 3D model using various materials, including concrete. 3D concrete printing mixture (mortar) is much thicker than conventional concrete, due to special additives, which allows it to be self-supporting during its installation. This opens up wide prospects for changing the usual architecture and geometric forms.


According to estimates by SmarTech Publishing[1], the potential for using 3D printing in construction can be comparable in scale to the combined volume of additive manufacturing in manufacture and medicine. Despite the fact that today's technologies in this area are at the experimentation and R&D stage, the market will double in the next three years and grow from $70 million in 2017 to $40 billion by 2027. $150 million of this amount will be made up of sales of materials for 3DCP, $3.5 billion – supplies of equipment and $36 billion is income from printing services and applications in various fields (including the income of specialized 3D printing centers).


Currently, the market can be divided into the following additive construction technologies:


1) Extrusion Based Technologies –concrete/cement, wax, foam, polymers.


2) Binder Jetting –polymer compound, chemical compound, sintering.


3) WAAM (Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing).


4) Other technologies, including mesh framing, sliding forming of vertical structures, partial concreting of metal mesh, etc.The 3D Module and Brick printing market is taken into consideration separately.



Global construction 3D printing market


In 2017, extrusion printing of buildings and infrastructure elements accounted for the largest market share (in terms of sales and volume), due to the ability to manufacture large-scale building components with complex geometric structures and the use of traditional building materials.


Printing materials:


- Concrete


- Plastic


- Metal


- Ceramics


- Other.


Traditionally, the most common material in construction is concrete. There are the following types of concrete:


- ready-mix concrete;


- precast concrete;


- sprayed concrete;


- high-density concrete.


Housing construction is projected to be the fastest growing segment of the market. The main factors of the market growth are the demand for affordable printed residential buildings and the ability to create complex architectural structures at a low price.


The market can also be divided by product types:


- walls


- roofs


- floors


- stairs


- etc.


3D printed concrete walls are one of the most important structures that are pre-fabricated on site or in a factory.


In 2017, the 3D concrete printing market in monetary terms was dominated by Europe (including the Russian market). Between 2018 and 2023, the fastest growing 3D concrete printing market is expected to be the Middle East market, where construction printing is driven by high labor costs and demand for affordable houses among middle-and low-income groups, as well as supportive government initiatives.


Advantages and disadvantages of using 3D printing in construction


Additive technologies give undeniable advantages and benefits to almost all the construction ecosystem participants. The authors highlight the following advantages:


- Reducing the time required for work on a construction site, improving the quality and accuracy of processes through program management.


- 3D printing uses program control of robot manipulators via a computer. Autonomous or semi autonomous 3D printers require minimal staff involvement


- 3D printing fits perfectly into the DfMA (Design for Manufacture and Assembly) concept


- Excluding tooling from the process or reducing the time/cost of manufacturing and installing the formwork/tooling


- Improving safety and working conditions


- Improving the environmental situation (the construction industry accounts for up to 80% of the world's waste)


- Topological optimization and acquisition of special properties, changes in the design process and “Complexity for free”


However, despite all the prospects and benefits of using 3D printing in the construction industry, there are a number of limitations:


- Today, construction 3D printers are mainly used for low-rise and small-sized individual residential buildings and for manufacturing small architectural forms.


- 3D printers are gigantic structures and therefore they are complex and expensive to place and install on site. Accordingly, the introduction of 3D construction printing is accompanied by an expensive initial investment: up to several million dollars in addition to current maintenance costs. At the same time it has to be noted that competition in the industry quickly reduces prices.


- Construction 3D printer operation process requires hiring an experienced operator as well as a materials scientist for exceptional care when preparing and mixing materials.


- Construction technology using a 3D printer requires special characteristics of the construction site, in particular, laying of guide rails requires a flat area, as well as continuous monitoring of their parallelism to ensure high printing accuracy.


- Autonomous manufacturing methods are not suitable for long-size structures.


- Rough appearance: surfaces may be not as smooth as the current quality standards require them to be, so further improvement and a subsequent human-assisted finishing stage can also be required. If you need smooth walls, you will have to do leveling, plastering or use facing materials.


- Resistance to innovation in the industry may delay the growth of 3D printing in construction.


Mechanization/industrialization is almost always met with skepticism about any new technology that can automate industrial jobs, especially in poor regions or cities with high unemployment rates. As construction printers reduce the need for manual labor, they create far fewer jobs for local workers. Phillips & James Construction Consulting estimates that up to 63 builders can work on a typical family house for 4 months. 3D printing methods significantly reduce this amount. This problem, as well as the lack of specialists who can use this technology, can be solved by re-training current employees.


Standardized construction with use of 3D printing has not yet begun. Libraries of ready-made technical solutions do not yet exist or their number is negligible. The overall average statistics have not yet been compiled and every printed building is unique. Therefore, the construction economy is not yet predictable. Among the additive production factors, some help save and some not. And there are many of various factors. Therefore, any construction site that use 3D printing today is an experimental platform with a set of knowledge and practical skills in the application of the entire variety of additive manufacturing technologies in construction. According to J'son & Partners Consulting, results (and advantages of using 3D printing) are updated at the time of post-printer certification, standardization, basing on the results of massive tests of all the required types of action.


This state of 'quantum uncertainty' will accompany additive manufacturing in construction for at least another 12-15 years. However, the J'son & Partners Consulting formula must be taken into account in order to make decisions. The use of additive technologies in construction at the initial stage is likely to cost more, but it is impossible to avoid participation in this process; optimization and reduction in cost, with an incredible number of other advantages, will happen inevitably. So taking part in this process is a good idea, leading this process is even better.



Current 3DCP use сases in the world



1) Architectural layouts and models, prototyping, testing the concept of complex connections and nodes in practice from the 3D model of the subcontractor


2) Interior items and furniture, small architectural forms


3) Building structural elements


- Printing and laying of bricks

- Printing of blocks

- Printing of glass, "digital" wood, composites

- Beams, scaffolding, frames


4) Floor manufacturing (topological optimization and printing)


5) Complex facades, enclosures for external structures, including repair and restoration works


6) Printing of load-bearing and non-load-bearing walls, as well as linear objects (gutters, parapets, roadways, including their repair)


7) Printing of both large buildings and relatively simple structures in their entirety (barracks, booths, toilets, bus stops)


8) Classic 3D printing in construction (metal, plastic, polymers, sand):


- Fixtures for fixing and assembling, including construction products and structures

- Formwork and tooling


9) Printing of bridges


10) 3D printing of pipes when tunneling underground


Fig. 1. Some examples of 3DCP usage in the world, collected in a study by J'son & Partners Consulting


Fig. 2. Some examples of 3DCP usage in the world, collected by J'son & Partners Consulting


Fig. 3. Some examples of 3DCP usage in the world, collected by J'son & Partners Consulting


Assessment of the economic effect of the transition to 3DCP


Despite the abundance of statements by manufacturing companies, like "a building was printed in 24 hours", which are picked up by the media, such estimates are a strong exaggeration today, since typical construction printers and mastered 3D printing processes are ableto produce only certain structures or elements during this time. Today 3D construction printers can carry out the following operations:


3D printing of foundations and walls, mainly using large-scale concrete extrusion, which is significantly cheaper and faster than the traditional method (sometimes within 24 hours or even less).


- 3D printing of molds and forms, in which ordinary materials can be cast for further manufacturing of building structures and elements, as well as all sorts of parts and components, sometimes with an unusual or complex design. 


- 3D printing of building materials and structures, parts and components: you can use concrete or hybrid materials to print bricks, panels, blocks, building and connecting components, or unusual facade decorations that are included in the project.


After that, there is still a lot of work to do to complete the building, including installing utilities (electricity, water, sewer, gas, etc.), heating, ventilation, air conditioning, windows, flooring, roof, surface finishing, doors, locks, smart communications, etc. These works are performed with use of traditional methods that may take weeks or months.


If we evaluate the current achieved level of 3D printing, we can see that construction printers only automate extrusion of concrete, and this is it basically. And if we estimate the total cost of construction a residential building, the contribution of 3D printing is not yet great. For example, according to the statistics, the average cost of constructing a building in the USA in 2017 shows that the cost of manufacturing of walls, frames/formwork, including the roof is about 15%, and the cost of foundation, retaining walls, along with earthworks, is no more than 11% of the total cost of the building.


Thus, if we talk about the economy of this industry in general, we can conclude that 3D printing in construction in the current status is unlikely to have a significant impact on the cost of a housing project, when most of the project is performed using traditional methods. Construction companies managed to integrate only a couple of existing systems to make the sub-process of a construction project a little more efficient.


However, the higher the labor costs and the additive construction automation degree, the greater the economic effect will be. According to calculations, the cost of labor costs with 3DCP can be reduced by up to 80% in the future.


Need to change the current approach in 3DCP to realize it’s full potential


In order to hypothetically allow 3D printing to master turnkey construction of a building, the industry will require significant technological changes in the concept of additive construction (which are already being tested at various levels in one way or another[2]):


Printing with use of various materials (multi-materials): almost all of today's 3D printers work with one material (usually concrete or similar). However, all buildings are made of at least several different materials. Construction printers of the future will have to print with several different ones, probably the most commonly used materials used in the building.


Installation of specialized components:while buildings are usually made of commonly interchangeable materials, there are many specialized components that are unlikely to be 3D printed in the foreseeable future (for example, triple-pane windows filled with nitrogen, electronic door locks, dimmable led lighting systems, etc.), as they require high-tech equipment. In order to fully automate construction of a building with use of such components, it is necessary to create a workflow and automation that include these pre-created components in the building design, their delivery to the site, installation, and configuration to the working state.


Specialized robots: experts doubt that it is possible to imagine a universal system that can successfully produce on-site and install any customized building components. Instead, it seems reasonable that the industry will eventually have robotic systems specializing in working with certain types of components. For example, it could be a "window installation robot" that could effectively work with several typical styles of window designs. And the same approach can be used for many other building components.


Suppliers of consumables: if you try to imagine a construction site of the future, which is equipped at a basic level with a system of 3D printers working with concrete, you will probably see that it is a busy place filled with many different robotic systems that continuously move around the site to install various components. The best way to place these components would be creating a kind of "shipping container" system, in which everything you need would be loaded in organizer mode, in which specialized robots could select components for construction as needed.


Control software:in order to do all the things mentioned above, you need very complex software to coordinate and control all activities. Today, on a typical construction site, this is done by a general contractor, that carefully plans construction work and manages subcontractors.


Design software: similarly, design software must take into account the existence of such possibilities and different construction methods, and create unique structures with specified properties. Using 3D printing, you can both take advantage of the construction process in a short time, and also create architectural projects that can not be completed by any other means. For example, you can print a construction that includes an internal air duct system that automatically turns on ventilation in sunlight.

[2]Source:  https://www.fabbaloo.com/blog/2018/8/30/what-construction-3d-printing-must-do-next


Fig. 4 The future of 3DCP lies in automation and robotization of the entire construction process


Additive construction is just emerging as an industry in Russia and the world and needs active support from both major industrial partners & potential customers, investors, and research organizations. The result of such support, along with the activity of developers and companies engaged in the introduction of additive technologies, can be the formation of an additive manufacturing ecosystem in construction, and in the future – the construction industry will take a leading position on the way to the Industry 4.0 format.


In order to successfully enter the emerging market of additive construction, companies must have relevant knowledge and competencies outlined in the study, and be aimed at fully automating their construction process.


Development of construction 3D printing in Russia


After a surge of interest in construction 3D printing in 2015-2017 in Russia, the market has stagnated, and key playershave switched to the global market. This happened due to the general economic situation on the Russian market as a whole, as well as the lack of interest and support for new initiatives from the construction industry and development institutions.


Apis Cor left Russia after receiving investments and completing a joint project with PIK Group on constructing a pilot house in Stupino. The company also announced that the production of construction 3D printers is no longer the main focus of the company. Currently Apis Cor is working on refining its technology. In parallel, the company participates in the NASA competition with its American partner for the development of the Mars house project, having a very good chance to win (the company has already won several stages of the competition and received significant monetary rewards). The latest developments of Spetsavia, large construction 3D printers for printing multi-storey buildings, are focused primarily on export (shipping to India has been confirmed), since in Russia the scope of use of 3DCP is limited to low-rise private housing construction (up to 3 floors). RENCA/Geobeton, a Russian-Italian company that develops geopolymer materials for 3D printing, is active in Dubai and Singapore, cooperating with other partners around the world.


On the other hand, the situation around construction 3D printing is becoming more and more practical, getting rid of bias and excessive media attention. And while developers of 3DCP technology in the civil capital construction segment are still deprived of the attention of key industry players, including for objective reasons (stagnation of the industry as a whole), there are spikes in activity in industrial capital construction. In particular, RENCA, using geopolymer mixture of its own development and a DeftHand 3D printer, took part in a pilot project at the stage of filling the foundation of a promising automated Gazprom Neft warehouse in Khanty-Mansiysk in the fall of 2018.


Fig. 5 Russian ecosystem of construction 3D printing


The Russian ecosystem of construction 3D printing, despite the stagnation of the industry and the economy as a whole, nevertheless continues to develop. The lack of speculative interest left only strong players on the market (Spetsavia, Betonator, RENCA, 3DeftHand), as well as projects of R&D centers with long-term state support, such as, for example, the joint development of SamSTU and NPO Lavochkin — a space printer for printing lunar regolith under the influence of focused sunlight. We should also highlight the presence of a number of strong regional scientific and educational centers focused on 3DCP, which actively interact with local businesses. For example, strong clusters were formed in Tomsk, Voronezh and Belgorod. Traditionally, Moscow occupies a leading position with MGSU and, in part, MISIS.


Work on the development of an appropriate regulatory framework for 3DCP has also intensified, although this is a prospect for the next 2-3 years. Within the framework of TC-182 under the Ministry of Industry and Trade, MGSU initiated the development of three state GOSTs (standards) regarding materials for 3D truss printing ("Terms and definitions", "Material requirements" (strength, rheological characteristics) and "Test methods"). The adoption of these GOSTs will remove the officially declared barriers to the use of materials (today there are no such barriers in the design process). There is also a technical TC-400 called "Construction works", which considers the technology such works, and currently there is also a development of a GOST regarding construction works with the use of construction 3D printers.


"A building project has nothing to do with the way it will be built, except for the part related to the organization of the construction process (general requirements for the organization of the construction site, general plan). The most important thing is that you have to make sure that the structure or element of the structure after the work performed meets the requirements of the project. Therefore, there is no such regulatory barrier as the need to first create a set of rules governing the use of 3DCP. You can use it now. But there are other requirements when you need to ensure that the product created by your 3D printer meets the standards and requirements. And these are requirements for materials, not the presence/absence of 3D printers" - says Andrey Pustovgar, Vice-rector of MGSU.


As for estimates of the potential volume of the Russian civil capital 3D printing construction market, the most interesting segment for the players is the low-rise private housing construction. This segment is the least regulated today and not subject to mandatory state examination of design documentation. In general, the players themselves estimate this segment at about 400 thousand houses per year, but in Russia the share of monolithic concrete housing construction, which could be replaced with the help of construction 3D printers, is insignificant. Plus, the country still uses strict climate restrictions on the thermal protection of printed concrete walls (so-called "cold bridges" are formed, even with the insulation of filled-in permanent forms created with use of the Contour Crafting technology), so only the southern Russian regions are suitable for 3DCP.


Speaking about the prospects of using 3D printing in industrial capital construction, it should be noted that the technology itself can become revolutionary if you provide an integrated approach (design, BIM model, materials, 3D printing, heat/noise insulation, etc.). By automating the process, 3DCP theoretically solves the main problem of the construction industry worldwide – the lack of qualified labor. The breakthrough due to the use of 3DCP will occur precisely in the growth of labor productivity, not in saving materials, as it was at the beginning of the use of 3D printing in industrial manufacturing (on average, the level of labor productivity in construction is 5 times lower than in industrial manufacturing).


In terms of industrial capital construction, the most interesting niches for using 3D printing are the filling of complex multi-level foundations and supports for equipment and structures (power lines, oil and gas pipelines, reservoirs, etc.), construction in the Far North by automating the construction process (there are materials ready to be adapted for 3DCP and resistant to low temperatures, in particular, such cryogels were developed in MGSU), road construction, various military tasks and space exploration.


The Russian construction industry is going through not the best of its times, and the initial enthusiasm of major players (PIK Group, EUROCEMENT Group, TechnoNICOL) has faded. Today, the nascent 3DCP segment is critically lacking strategic partners who would simultaneously act as anchor customers and partners in conducting long-term R&D.


Specific barriers and drivers to the 3DCP market development in Russia




- General weakness of the Russian mechanical engineering and chemical industry development and the associated high cost of imported components and complex modifying additives (as a result we can see dependence on currency fluctuations and high cost of 3D printing materials and equipment)


- Low quality of Russian cement


- Weak interest and lack of support for 3DCP projects from the construction industry, development institutions, and the state as a whole


- Сomplexity of the regulatory framework, which makes it possible, often groundless, to speculate about the complete impossibility of using 3DCP in Russia


- Lack of incentive to increase the efficiency of the construction industry due to the availability of cheap low-skilled labor/labor migration from the CIS countries




- Extremely low labor productivity in the Russian construction industry leaves a serious reserve for its growth, associated with the digitalization and automation of the construction process, including through construction 3D printing


- Ability to exclude the human factor and errors associated with it (they account for up to 70% of all defects)


- Significant possible savings on ensuring construction work safety due to minimizing the presence of personnel on the construction site


- Need to develop the Arctic and Northern territories, where automation of capital civil, industrial and military construction processes will have the greatest effect


- A new national 3DCP ecosystem has been formed, ready for active work when strategic investors come to the industry


- Maintaining strong scientific traditions regarding construction materials science and engineering


Fig. 6 Evolution of 3DCP implementation cases in Russia_from hype to practice


Prospects for harmonization of state regulation for the mass use of 3D printing in construction


The Russian construction standards and codes do not contain any principle of describing buildings and structures and methods of their construction, but they have restrictions that developers and construction workers should be guided by when choosing space-planning solutions, materials, products, and engineering equipment. Therefore, unlike other industries and, in particular, engineering, the system of regulatory support in construction is not a barrier to the introduction of additive technologies, but only requires changes to certain regulatory documents and development of a small number of regulatory documents that take into account all the specifics of additive manufacturing.


State expertise of project documentation is also not a barrier to the implementation of 3DCP, since its modern technological development level is still in its infancy and can only be effectively used for private low-rise construction projects that are not subject to state expertise. But since cement binders, dry building mixes and solutions, which are currently the most common materials for construction 3D printing, are subject to mandatory conformity assessment in various forms, when implementing additive technologies, it is necessary, first of all, to develop standards that provide an evidence base for quality control and conformity assessment of materials used for 3DCP.


In order to overcome this barrier, it is necessary to develop two national standards that regulate the technical requirements for such materials when used in additive construction technologies and test methods that ensure quality control. This is currently being done by the MGSU as part of TC-182.


Thus, 3DCP in Russia, potentially having a wide scope of use, can become a breakthrough in the development of the capital civil and industrial construction industry. However, this requires overcoming a number of barriers, and current solutions in the market should be taken only as a demonstration of the capabilities of the initial stage of the 3DCP industry development. 




This information note was prepared by the J'son & Partners Consulting. We work hard to provide factual and prognostic data that fully reflect the situation and available at the time of release. J'son & Partners Consulting reserves the right to revise the data after publication of new official information by individual players. 


Copyright © 2020, J'son & Partners Consulting. The media can use the text, graphics, and data contained in this market review only using a link to the source of information - J'son & Partners Consulting or with an active link to the JSON.TV portal


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Detailed research results presented in the full version of the Report:


“Current state and prospects of 3D Construction Printing (3DCP) in Russia and the world”



Part 1

1. Introduction

1.1. Terms and definitions

1.2. Current state of the construction industry. Key problems and ways to solve them

1.2.1. Trends in construction: advanced industrial management methods and the ongoing digitalization

1.2.2. Transition to industrial Construction 4.0, automated processes and autonomous management

1.2.3. Unresolved problems in the construction industry

1.2.4. Long-term challenges of the construction industry aimed at maximizing its current potential and increasing its productivity

2. Construction using additive technologies (3D printing) in the world: trends, goals, problems, benefits and prospects

2.1. Additive manufacturing in construction

2.1.1. Definition of 3D printing in construction

2.1.2. Assessment of the construction 3D printing market in the world

2.1.3. Prerequisites for the emergence of 3D printing in construction, continuity of the environment

2.1.4. Advantages of 3D printing in construction

2.1.5. Disadvantages of 3D printing in construction

2.1.6. Key directions of R&D of 3D printing in construction

3. Construction: value chain, ecosystem, marketplaces, information resources, conferences

3.1. Theoretical and conceptual methods of positioning construction 3D printing in the industry digitalization system and total process automation

3.2. Ecosystem of additive manufacturing in the construction

3.3. Examples of 3D printing design ecosystems

3.4. Application of construction 3D printing

4. Stages of printing in construction (from design to post-processing, finishing, quality control, certification)

4.1. Design, creation of a CAD model and its optimization

4.2. Converting CAD model data to STL/AMF files, transferring data to a printer

4.3. Printer setting

4.4. Manufacturing

4.5. Post processing

4.6. Testing: Quality Control

4.7. Operation

5. Additive technologies (3D printing) in construction (technologies currently available on the market, application areas, types of printed building structures and elements, materials used)

5.1. Classification of construction additive technologies by manufacturing location

5.2. Classification of construction additive technologies by application area

5.3. Main types of construction 3D printers

5.4. Materials used in 3DCP

5.4.1. Concrete

5.4.2. Polymers, composites, metals and other materials

5.5. Basic construction additive technologies

5.5.1. Additive technologies for manufacturing concrete building structures (walls, columns, infrastructure objects)

5.5.2. Additive technologies for manufacturing non-concrete building structures (infrastructure objects, including bridges)

5.5.3. Additive technologies for manufacturing formwork

5.5.4. Additive technologies for forming spatial frames and reinforcing structures

5.5.5. Manufacture of auxiliary elements and accessories

5.5.6. Facade repair and restoration

5.5.7. Use of additive technologies while manufacturing and installation of building blocks

5.5.8. Hybrid processes in construction

Part 2

6. Key manufacturers and service providers (both by equipment manufacturing and servicing). Overview of construction 3D printers applications and characteristics

6.1. 3D construction equipment developers

6.1.1. WinSun

6.1.2. CyBe Construction    

6.1.3. Constructions-3d      

6.1.4. COBOD

6.1.5. MIT Digital Construction Platform (DCP MIT)        

6.1.6. Total Kustom 

6.1.7. Company 7    

6.1.8. Company 8    

6.1.9. Company 9

6.1.10. Company 10

6.1.11. Company 11

6.1.12. Company 12

6.1.13. Company 13

6.1.14. Company 14

6.1.15. Company 15

6.1.16. Company 16

6.1.17. Company 17

6.1.18. Company 18

6.1.19. Company 19

6.1.20. Company 20

6.1.21. Company 21

6.1.22. Company 22

6.1.23. Company 23

6.1.24. Company 24

6.1.25. Company 25

6.1.26. Company 26

6.2. Others (including "classic" 3D printers developers)   

6.2.1. Ramlab

6.2.2. LifeTec

6.2.3. MX3D  

6.2.4. Aectual

6.2.5. Gramazio kohler 3d   

6.2.6. Bigrep 

6.2.7. Company 7    

6.2.8. Company 8    

6.2.9. Company 9    

6.2.10. Company 10

6.2.11. Company 11

6.2.12. Company 12

6.2.13. Company 13

6.2.14. Company 14

6.2.15. Company 15

6.2.16. Company 16

6.2.17. Company 17

6.2.18. Company 18

6.2.19. Company 19

6.3. 3DCP materials developers

6.3.1. WinSun

6.3.2. CyBe   

6.3.3. Imerys Ceramics      

6.3.4. Renca Rus and Geobeton

6.3.5. Center for RaPID Automated Fabrication Technologies    

6.3.6. EmergingObjects      

6.3.7. Weber Saint Gobain Beamix 

7. Cases, printing segments in construction, effects achieved in the world

7.1. Technology demonstration office (Denmark)

7.2. WinSun  

7.2.1. Printing 10 houses in 24 hours

7.2.2. Mansion with an area of 1100 m2

7.2.3. 5-storey residential complex

7.2.4. Temporary office of the Dubai Future Foundation

7.3. Pedestrian bridge in Shanghai

7.4. Printed metal bridge

7.5. Total Kustom (Andrey Rudenko)

7.5.1. "Castle" printed using a 3D printer (USA)

7.5.2. Room at the Lewis Grand Hotel (Philippines)

7.6. House in Austin (Texas)

7.7. YHNOVA house in Nantes (France)

7.8. Domed house

7.9. Autonomous homes (Ukraine/USA)

7.10. Gaia RiceHouse built of earth and rice industry waste

7.11. CyBe

7.11.1. De Vergaderfabriek ("Meeting factory") in Toig (Netherlands)

7.11.2. R&Drone Laboratory (UAE)

7.11.3. 3D Studio 2030 (Saudi Arabia)

7.11.4. 3D Housing 05 Villa (Italy)

7.11.5. Vilogia House (France)

7.11.6. Pedestrian bridge (Netherlands)

7.12. Branch Technology

7.12.1. CURVE APPEAL, Tennessee (USA)

7.12.2. Dome for participation in the NASA competition

7.13. D-Shape

7.13.1. One-piece house

7.13.2. 3D printed bridge in a park south of Madrid (Spain)

7.14. Water supply collector

7.15. Beijing Huashang Luhai

7.15.1. Two-story house

7.15.2. "Windsor castle"

7.16. "Mini-builders"

7.17. Automatic bricklaying

7.18. US Marine corps

7.18.1. 3D printing of barracks

7.18.2. Pedestrian bridge

7.19. Printed house on a canal in Amsterdam (Netherlands)

7.20. Twisted tower made of 3D printed bricks

7.21. Booth for printed "unusual things" (USA)

7.22. Elements with curvature in two planes

7.23. Printing facades from tiny bricks

7.24. Sand + PVA pipes

7.25. Floor panel (Switzerland)

7.26. Artificial coral reef (Australia)

7.27. Apis Cor. NASA competition. Foundation for a Martian home

7.28. Milestone Project (Netherlands)

7.29. Bicycle bridge

7.30. Gyroi installation and office in Rotterdam (Netherlands)

7.31. Сoncrete canoe (Switzerland)

7.32. Nature Gardens Installation

8. Barriers and restrictions, risks when using construction additive technologies, ways to overcome them

8.1. Regulatory barriers

8.2. Technical barriers

8.3. Component barriers

8.4. Economic          barriers

8.5. Other barriers

9. Current situation, dynamics and trends of the Russian market         

9.1. General situation on the construction market

9.2. 3DCP market development trends

9.3. Current and future use of 3DCP

9.4. Analysis of the economic attractiveness of 3DCP in comparison with traditional construction methods

9.5. Drivers and constraints of the 3DSP market development

9.6. Prerequisites for harmonization of the regulatory framework

10. Ecosystem of additive technologies (3D printing) in construction in the Russian Federation, manufacturers, suppliers, materials, services

10.1. Hardware developers

10.1.1. AMT-Spetsavia

10.1.2. ARKON/Betonator

10.1.3. Apis Cor

10.1.4. 3DeftHand

10.2. Promising developments

10.2.1. TSUAB

10.2.2. Samara State Technical University and NPO Lavochkin

10.2.3. BSTU

10.2.4. MISIS

10.2.5. "Titan Industry"

10.2.6. ARKODIM-Pro

10.3. Specialized 3DCP materials developers

10.3.1. RENCA/Geobeton

10.3.2. EcoForm 3D

10.3.3. VSTU

10.4. Traditional materials suppliers interested in 3DCP

10.4.1. Unified developer center/3DeftHand

10.4.2. Monolit

10.4.3. EUROCEMENT Group

10.4.4. TechnoNICOL

10.5. General regulations when working with 3DCP materials

10.6. R&D and education centers

11. State regulation, certification of construction additive technologies (3D printing) in the world and in Russia

11.1. State regulation in Russia

11.1.1. Goals of standardization and regulation in the development of construction additive technologies

11.1.2. Overview of the Russian Federation’s technical legislation, main regulations, concepts, principles – everything concerning the aspects of obtaining a 3D construction printing permit

11.1.3. General applied issues of technical regulation, the procedure for establishing and confirming requirements (voluntary and mandatory) for products and services in the Russian Federation.

11.1.4. Aspects (especially those compared to the rules of the Russian Federation) of technical regulation in the global market. How it is planned to harmonize the adopted standards with other countries and what countries are considered in this regard

11.1.5. Issues associated with standardization of additive technologies (approved and developed standards, comparative analysis, orientation). Where is the center of competence, is there (will there be) an official association/working group?

11.1.6. Mandatory state expertise: in which cases it is not required, in which cases 3D printing can be used in construction (by individuals and industrial/construction companies)

11.1.7. Issues associated with assessing compliance and confirming the quality of additive manufacturing.

11.1.8. Personnel issues: what is planned to be done regarding personnel/education/qualifications in additive technologies in construction?

11.1.9. Standards/requirements for software, formats, encoding of files with 3D models, security, IP/intellectual property

11.1.10. Possible options for implementing additive manufacturing in construction (road maps, sequence of certification/standardization/testing, risk assessment elements, responsibility)

11.1.11. Who is responsible in case of accident if the construction contains printed parts?

11.1.12. Do US and European sanctions affect the supply of equipment and materials, or the use of software? For example, Autodesk refuses to work with Russian oil and gas companies

11.1.13. Is it planned to conduct R & D, testing, including at the state level?

11.2. State strategies for the development of 3DCP in the world

11.2.1. UAE

11.2.2. Singapore

12. Cases of application of construction additive technologies (3D printing) in the Russian Federation

12.1. Renca

12.2. Apis Cor         

12.3. AMT-Spetsavia

12.4. 3DeftHand      

12.5. Titanid  

13. Summary       

14. Annexes

14.1. Scientific articles on 3DCP materials used in the study

14.2. Information resources on 3DCP/AM

14.3. International events associated with 3DCP/AM

14.4. General list of scientific articles used

List of figures, part 1

Fig. 1 Digital solutions cover the entire construction lifecycle

Fig. 2 Venture capital investments in civil and industrial construction in USA, 2013-2018

Fig. 3 Examples of robotic solutions in construction (rebar screed, bricklaying, autonomous carts, welding complexes, exoskeletons, etc.)

Fig. 4 Reduction of construction work on site: traditional method and DfMA

Fig. 5 Examples of manufacturing components, integrated components, and fully integrated components (PPVA) for DfMA methods

Fig. 6 Crowne Plaza Changi Airport Hotel, built of PPVA by DfMA method

Fig. 7 Potential benefits of using BIM for DfMA methods in off-site manufacturing and on-site assembly of structures

Fig. 8 3 clusters of technological solutions at the construction stage

Fig. 9 Construction lifecycle before commissioning

Fig. 10 Changing technological patterns and implementing the Construction 4.0 concept

Fig. 11 Level of penetration of modern digital technologies among global construction companies and owners of major projects

Fig. 12 Construction lifecycle before commissioning

Fig. 13 Volume of investments in digital construction technologies at different stages of the lifecycle, the emergence of cross-functional solutions (overarching)

Fig. 14 Ecosystem of digital construction technologies and the emergence of four new product classes focused on the entire value chain

Fig. 15 Components of a cyber-physical service product

Fig. 16 Global additive construction market, $ billion, 2016-2027

Fig. 17 Global additive construction market by application area, $ million, 2021

Fig. 18 Global concrete 3D printing market by region, $ million, 2018

Fig. 19 Construction site view: traditional construction (left) and 3D printing (right)

Fig. 20 Wall masonry process: 3D printing (left) and traditional hand masonry (right)

Fig. 21 Robotic construction 3D printers (minitanks) by Cazza

Fig. 22 3D printing will become a necessary attribute of modern architecture

Fig. 23 Main technological advantages of construction 3D printing

Fig. 24 Construction professions with maximum employment, subject to reduction with the arrival of automation and digitalization in the industry

Fig. 25 Prospects for the global construction industry to become fully automated by 2025

Fig. 26 Ecosystem of additive manufacturing (3D printing) in construction. Project

Fig. 27 Partner ecosystem of a steel bridge 3D printing project

Fig. 28 3D printing service for architecture

Fig. 29 3D printed layout of a construction complex

Fig. 30 AECOM Hunt uses 3D printing to check complex connections in the subcontractor's design documentation

Fig. 31 Examples of printed interior items, USA

Fig. 32 Various small architectural forms designed for concrete 3D printing

Fig. 33 Seats

Fig. 34 Concrete benches in Berlin

Fig. 35 3D printing and robotic laying of bricks and blocks

Fig. 36 3D printing of bricks for facades

Fig. 37 Schematics of a 3D printing and bricklaying system

Fig. 38 3D printing of blocks for facade decoration

Fig. 39 3D printing of glass and wood textures

Fig. 40 Square, hexagonal and triangular resin honeycomb structures

Fig. 41 Changing the principles of floor design and integration through 3D printing

Fig. 42 Examples of 3D floor printing

Fig. 43 Examples of printed partitions and shells, USA

Fig. 44 3D printing of interior items

Fig. 45 Production of casings for complex roof overlaps by 3D printing

Fig. 46 Production of a mold for facade repair by 3D printing

Fig. 47 Restored facade of the building on 5th Avenue, New York (above) and the Sagrada Familia Temple, Barcelona (below) under construction using 3D printing

Fig. 48 3D printing from concrete without formwork and molds, with the possibility of direct printing of the facade

Fig. 49 Restoration works based on laser scanning and 3D printing

Fig. 50 Installation for manufacturing cold rolled steel based using a 3D printer, CNC machine and software

Fig. 51 Hardware and software

Fig. 52 Examples of implemented 3D printing projects (assembling - top, modeling/rendering - bottom)

Fig. 53 Examples of manufacturing facades by 3D printing

Fig. 54 Facade elements, 3D printing

Fig. 55 Connecting elements for modular units, 3D printing

Fig. 56 Examples of FreeFab 3D printed wax formwork building structures (also robotic 3D printing and formwork milling)

Fig. 57 Curved panels for the London underground project on 3D printed formwork

Fig. 58 Technology for manufacturing concrete slabs based on 3D printed wax formwork

Fig. 59 Examples of manufacturing formwork, 3D printing

Fig. 60 Printed pole supporting the roof of a school, France

Fig. 61 SCRIM method using robotic 3D printing of concrete and mesh

Fig. 62 Examples of 3D printed concrete walls, various manufacturers

Fig. 63 3D printing of walls without molds

Fig. 64 Manufacturing of load-bearing structures, columns and walls using 3D printing, C-Fab method

Fig. 65 Construction of walls, 3D printing

Fig. 66 Houses with 3D printing elements

Fig. 67 Mesh Mould Technology for wall rigging and reinforcement, manufactured by an In Situ Fabricator robot

Fig. 68 Concrete forming technology

Fig. 69 First 3D printed house to receive a construction permit, USA

Fig. 70 Channel house. Demonstration project of 3D printing of a house in Amsterdam

Fig. 71 WINSUN 3D printing projects

Fig. 72 Prototype of mass production residential buildings (1.5 million homes planned) by CyBe in Saudi Arabia. One-bedroom house of 80 sq. m, 3D printing in one week

Fig. 73 World's first printed "Office of the Future", Dubai

Fig. 74 World's first printed "Office of the Future", Dubai

Fig. 75 World's longest printed bridge, China

Fig. 76 World's first plastic bridge, China

Fig. 77 Schematics of operation for adapted construction robots

Fig. 78 3D printing of a pedestrian steel bridge in Amsterdam

Fig. 79 World's first printed concrete bridge, Spain

Fig. 80 3D printed concrete reinforced bicycle bridge

Fig. 81 US Marines are practicing 3D concrete bridge printing technology

Fig. 82 US Military are investigating requirements for 3D printing of barracks and special expeditionary structures from locally available materials

Fig. 83 3D printing of jail cells

Fig. 84 Construction projects with use of 3D printing, Smart Palm and others

Fig. 85 Security booth and bus stop project

Fig. 86 Robot for trenchless earth 3D printing works

Fig. 87 Technological schematics for a 3D printing robotic driller

Fig. 88 Project of a robotic system for drilling and 3D printing of tunnels without disturbing the surface above

Fig. 89 Road repair drone provided with a 3D printer

Fig. 90 General view of 3D printed toilets, Singapore for India

Fig. 91 International space exploration project competitions

Fig. 92 Concept of the Mineral extraction Lunar base project (Arkon LLC, Roscosmos and Vernadsky Institute)

Fig. 93 Minerals for extraction, processing, subsequent use for additive production of components, and delivery to Earth

Fig. 94 Aluminum profiles for facade glazing systems, fasteners for which will be 3D printed by New Hudson Facades

Fig. 95 Steel spider-shaped fasteners for glass panels. One of the first prototypes created on the Autodesk Robotic Toolbox mobile complex

Fig. 96 Multiple modular construction holder on the exterior facade, redesigned and printed as a single part. Created on Autodesk Robotic Toolbox

Fig. 97 Detailed cost structure of a 3D printing pilot project

Fig. 98 Example of a sequence of processes in a 3D printing pilot project

Fig. 99 Typical process of 3D concrete printing (3DCP) for the construction industry

Fig. 100 Shortening the construction cycle due to 3D printing on site

Fig. 101 Stages of additive manufacturing in construction

Fig. 102 Digital flow in additive manufacturing

Fig. 103 karamba3d structural optimization

Fig. 104 Key AP parameters that require monitoring

Fig. 105 Typical additive manufacturing process system

Fig. 106 3DCP-based manufacturing process

Fig. 107 3D printing process when manufacturing modular units in the factory (off site)

Fig. 108 3D printing process when manufacturing modular units in the factory (off site)

Fig. 109 Building structure mold making process

Fig. 110 Modeling elements of embedded systems

Fig. 111 General view of 3D printing technologies in place (on site)

Fig. 112 General view of prefabricated printed modular structures (off site)

Fig. 113 Types of construction 3D printers

Fig. 114 Portal construction 3D printers

Fig. 115 Digital construction platform project

Fig. 116 Suspended platform as an example of a delta printer

Fig. 117 Minibuilders and the swarm approach in construction 3D printing

Fig. 118 Approach to swarm construction

Fig. 119 Concept of applying the swarm approach: flying construction 3D printer

Fig. 120 Requirements for 3D printing materials

Fig. 121 Requirements for 3D printing materials

Fig. 122 Basic parameters determining properties of concrete for 3D printing

Fig. 123 Strength dynamics curve when using additives in 3D printing from concrete

Fig. 124 Types of fibers used in 3D printing from concrete

Fig. 125 Examples of polymer fiber (PVA, PP)

Fig. 126 Concrete extrusion process common schematic

Fig. 127 Contour Crafting process

Fig. 128 Prospects for using Contour Crafting in building construction

Fig. 129 Printing Process, TotalKustom

Fig. 130 Printing Process, Yingchuang

Fig. 131 Concrete Printing constructions

Fig. 132 Concrete Printing process

Fig. 133 CONPrint3D-based printing process schematics

Fig. 134 3D printing based on CONPrint3D technologies

Fig. 135 Multifunctional wall element

Fig. 136 Object constructed using the Shotcrete method

Fig. 137 Schematics of concrete mix and additive feed

Fig. 138 D-Shape process schematics

Fig. 139 D-Shape process in construction

Fig. 140 Diagram of a WAAM process

Fig. 141 Application of WAAM when manufacturing building structures

Fig. 142 Principles of modeling by layer-by-layer deposition, FDM

Fig. 143 Application of FDM technology when manufacturing building structures

Fig. 144 Production of removable formwork

Fig. 145 Production of concrete elements using removable formwork

Fig. 146 Formwork post-processing and applying concrete to the formwork

Fig. 147 Wax formwork manufacturing process, material jetting

Fig. 148 Production of a structure using formwork

Fig. 149 Column forming process

Fig. 150 Production of permanent formwork

Fig. 151 Reinforcement processes in digital construction

Fig. 152 Construction of reinforcing structures

Fig. 153 Application of C-Fab technology in Branch Technology projects

Fig. 154 C-Fab structure

Fig. 155 Production of polymer reinforcing structures

Fig. 156 Production of metal reinforcing structures

Fig. 157 Special devices manufactured in additive manufacturing

Fig. 158 Metal bracket manufactured in additive manufacturing

Fig. 159 Autodesk, Mobile 3D printing complex

Fig. 160 Polymer formwork

Fig. 161 Printing systems

Fig. 162 Printing prototypes

Fig. 163 Printing of structural elements, Woonstad Rotterdam project

Fig. 164 3D printing of blocks for facade decoration

Fig. 165 Cubic pixel 3D printing

Fig. 166 Installation equipment

Fig. 167 Robotic bricklaying

Fig. 168 Robotic assembly of wooden modules

Fig. 169 Stages of a hybrid process

Fig. 170 Project structure


List of figures, part 2

Fig. 1 Construction site

Fig. 2 Self-propelled robot for wall reinforcement and tooling operations developed by In situ Fabricator

Fig. 3 Alternative construction technology using a robotic bricklayer

Fig. 4 Example of layering

Fig. 5 Inability to print tension resistant structures from concrete (floors, ceilings, etc)

Fig. 6 3D printer concept for multi-storey construction

Fig. 7 Large 3D printer of a Shanghai company

Fig. 8 Commissioning of residential and non-residential buildings, thousand units

Fig. 9 Commissioning of non-residential buildings, 2018, units

Fig. 10 Commissioning of industrial buildings, thousand units

Fig. 11 Modernisation of the construction industry

Fig. 12 Russian 3DCP ecosystem

Fig. 13 Estimation of the Russian construction 3D printing market by Renca

Fig. 14 Cost comparison of 3D printing and standard residential construction

Fig. 15 Technical specifications of AMT S-500

Fig. 16 Construction 3D printer Betonator, portal type

Fig. 17 Construction 3D printer Betonator with an extruder on the robotic manipulator

Fig. 18 Mars X House Concept by SEArch+ and Apis Cor

Fig. 19 Self-propelled construction 3D printer by 3DeftHand TH3 TRACK.TRAIL

Fig. 20 Characteristics of the self-propelled TH3 TRACK.TRAIL by 3DeftHand

Fig. 21 Laboratory construction 3D printer by TSUAB

Fig. 22 Conceptual image of the lunar 3D printer by NPO Lavochkin and SamSTU

Fig. 23 BSTU construction printer

Fig. 24 Printer for ceramics printing by MISIS Fablab

Fig. 25 Construction robot Titan V-01-Mini

Fig. 26 Construction robot Titan S-01-Mini

Fig. 27 Prospective development for multi-storey construction by Titan Industry

Fig. 28 Industrial robot ARKODIM-Pro

Fig. 29 Technical characteristics of the 3-axis ARKODIM-Pro robot

Fig. 30 Technical characteristics of the 4-axis ARKODIM-Pro robot

Fig. 31 Technical characteristics of the 5-axis ARKODIM-Pro robot

Fig. 32 Comparison of air shrinkage and geocement strength

Fig. 33 Renca integrated project implementation plan

Fig. 34 Characteristics of special mixtures for construction 3D printing by the Unified developer center

Fig. 35 AMT-Spetsavia branded cement mixes for 3D printing supplied by its partners

Fig. 36 His Highness Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid al Maktoum announces the Dubai Future Foundation program

Fig. 37 “Office of the Future” and interior design, 3D printing, Dubai

Fig. 38 Andrey Dudnikov and Renca geopolymer concrete

Fig. 39 Opening of a 3D printing production site (3D FARM, Dubai)

Fig. 40 Drone lab, 3D printing, Dubai: general view and construction process

Fig. 41 What was created in 2015-2016 in Singapore for the development of 3D printing technologies

Fig. 42 Key sectors for NAMIC

Fig. 43 NAMIC Summit 2019 announcement

Fig. 44 Geopolymer concrete products

Fig. 45 General structure

Fig. 46 Fiber reinforced cement composites and building box modeling

Fig. 47 Robot teamwork, 3D printing, Singapore

Fig. 48 General view of 3D printed toilets, Singapore for India

Fig. 49 Renca mobile construction printer

Fig. 50 Comprehensive Renca solution

Fig. 51 Average cost of housing construction and item-by-item costs

Fig. 52 Distribution of typical costs of a new concrete construction project

Fig. 53 Demonstration of automatic installation of communications and fittings

Fig. 54 Demonstration of earthquake-resistant forms and an example of a portal with multiple printer heads

Fig. 55 Demonstration of Contour Crafting printing, April 2019

Fig. 56 Comparison of raw material cost per 1 sq. m by country, 2014 ($): additive and traditional construction

Fig. 57 Comparison of labor cost per 1 sq. m by country, 2014  ($): additive and traditional construction