Technologies, equipment and services for mud logging in Russia and the world
Analytical Report (full version)
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Analytical Report (full version)
Technologies, equipment and services for mud logging in Russia and the world
J’son & Partners Consulting presents results of the research dedicated to solutions and technologies for mud logging while drilling (during well construction) and gives a review of equipment and service suppliers in Russia and the world. The report details historical and current trends in the development of the mud logging equipment. The evolution of technologies and services is systematized and visualized. The above examples show which services are currently considered standard, and which are advanced; which technologies are at the testing stages now and which are at the stages of research and development of concepts.
The report contains more than 500 pages with a detailed description of the services and equipment of the main mud logging service providers.
Analysis of mud logging technologies in the world
In order to ensure the most efficient drilling, it is necessary to have the most detailed information from the drilled layers. Along with equipment, qualifications and various tools, data (related to geological, geophysical, mud logging, petrophysical, hydrodynamic and other research carried out on site) is also an effective working tool for the uninterrupted operation of the borehole. Being collected continuously from all instruments, devices and various types of equipment, this data provides the fastest and easiest way to simulate and evaluate intersected rocks, oil and gas formations, technological work at the rig and well condition. This is an integral link in the chain of engineering oilfield services, which, as a rule, are provided by a third-party company.
One of the main sources of such information while drilling is mud logging, which process not only geological data associated with the formation, but also additional information, including technical parameters of drilling.
Mud logging is a process of monitoring, recording and analyzing qualitative and quantitative data from the well in order to determine:
- geochemical and geological composition of the drilled rocks, mud and formation fluids (liquid and gaseous) that come up to the surface from the wellwith drilling fluid while drilling;
- presence, concentration and chemical composition of the gascoming up to the surface in the drilling fluid (gas logging);
- characteristics and parameters of technological processesrelated to drilling at various stages of well construction with reference to the results of studies according to the time of the controlled technological process and depth and section of the investigated well.
There is not a single type of recorded data that gives figures of greatest interest itself, for example, how much oil or gas there is in the ground, or how much of it is being obtained at the moment. Such information from the data can only be received indirectly, by interpreting various measured indicators and using a number of assumptions that (if they are accurate) will give estimates of hydrocarbon or mineral resources that will be close to reality.
So, at one hoisting operation, measurements are carried out immediately, by several different methods, the results are interpreted all together. Combining several types of data can provide important information both in terms of identifying possible errors and for understanding underground formation structure. This allows a responsible specialist to visualize data more efficiently than viewing each parameter individually. So a complex interpretation analysis translates the obtained data from the well into indicators of porosity, saturation and permeability of the formation.
As a rule, until recent achievements in field geochemistry, in addition to the data collected, in any case, it was necessary to conduct appropriate laboratory studies in order to obtain direct (geophysical) information about the drilled formations, and to verify the results of related studies (indirect and interpretative data) while drilling. These recent achievements in geochemistry provide an opportunity to evaluate drilled rocks in situ.
Abroad, all types of downhole research are united by the term "well log" (also “well logging” and “borehole logging”) which means data that is recorded and measured with use of different tools and methods; continuous data recording and detailed recording of physical parameters of the borehole and geological formations into which the well penetrates (variable in time and depth). Initially, such data was provided in mesh paper, today it has become possible to transmit it in digital or video format.
Registration of well data is carried out at all stages of well development, drilling, construction, production and closing. Ultimately, all the information received from the well is documented, its detailed profile is created (in fact, it is a model of the well or its digital twin, meanwhile the degree of data completeness may vary).
The quality of research (as well as data recorded) that accompany drilling is fundamental to the drilling control implementation
While drilling, all necessary information must be received continuously, efficiently and it must contain the most reliable data on the geological section and drilling parameters. This is especially important when making horizontal lateral branches, and for timely adjustment of the wellbore trajectory in case of obstacles or in order to identify discrepancies with preliminary data of exploration and other research data.
The interpretation skill and the main task that specialists face while analyzing various data is mainly in reducing a large amount of data to more manageable results and reducing possible errors in assumptions.
Trends in the global market of oilfield services
As the International Energy Agency (IEA) expects, global demand for hydrocarbons and all types of energy resources will steadily grow in the future until 2040. Last year, demand for all types of fuel grew at the fastest rate in a decade (2.3%), while demand for gas increased rapidly (by 4.6% since 2010), which was contributed by the substitution of coal by gas, mainly due to trends in increasing environmental friendliness of production. The agency notes that in the United States there has been a maximum increase in oil and gas consumption over the past 20 years.
By 2040, world oil demand will increase by 12% compared to 2018, and world gas demand will increase by 45%. The largest consumers are the markets of the US, Africa, China, India, and the Middle East. A significant increase in oil demand will be ensured by: cargo transportation (18%), aviation and shipping (15%), petrochemical production (15%) and an increase in industrial production worldwide.
Oil supply in the medium and long term will correspond to its demand. A steady growth in hydrocarbon demand in the long term will ensure an increase in production and exploration, which, according to foreign analysts, will contribute to the growth of the oilfield services market in general (including drilling, geophysical and related services, testing, completion and overhaul of wells, underwater operations, etc.).
The biggest recent oil price reduction in 2014 — 2016 has stirred up the oil and gas industry worldwide and led to the need to reduce the cost of oil field exploration and development. Currently, we can see a cautious restoration of the pre-crisis positions. Uncertainty due to volatility in oil prices, geopolitical factors, fierce global competition and increased supply of alternative energy sources around the world impose stringent requirements on oil and gas and service companies to minimize these risks.
Both customers and oilfield service companies have to work under tight control and reduce the cost of oilfield services, increase the efficiency of exploration, construction and commissioning of new wells. One of the largest components in the cost of oilfield services is drilling services (including related services). Therefore, customers are always interested in minimizing the timing and cost of drilling, which depend on many factors.
In the coming years, due to the growing demand for hydrocarbons and expected drilling of new wells, the demand for mud logging equipment and technology for obtaining well data in the world will also gradually grow. At the same time, there is a risk that in countries with an unstable economic situation, a drop in oil prices could freeze the investments of producing companies, and at the same time hinder the growth of drilling and the commissioning of new wells, which could lead to stagnation in the market for related services.
Evolution of mud logging services in the world
Historically, mud logging is the earliest type of logged well data. In the past, geologists had few tools for evaluation, they watched as the drilling fluid returned to the surface, expecting to see iridescent sheenwhich was the sign of oil presence, or bubbles and foam — the sign of gas presence. Mud logging was initially focused on high-quality monitoring of drilling fluid for oil and gas. This included monitoring the drilling fluid, detecting oil gloss in the cuttings, monitoring the gas released from the drilling fluids at the surface, and examining the cuttings to determine the type of rock that was drilled.
Until recently, the term “mud logging service” was mainly related to personnel and equipment. The main characteristics of the market were standard equipment (mainly low-tech) that was manufactured by third-party manufacturers. A small number of customers, same set of services, the ability to easily replace one supplier with another one and low barriers before entering the market. All that led to low service margins and high competition in the industry. The main distinctive competitive advantage was experience and qualifications of personnel while providing these services.
Over the past decades, methods for collecting downhole data have undergone revolutionary changes from single recording of parameters (logs) to fully digital data collection solutions. Today, well staff already use various modern tools for geology, engineering, sampling, etc., focused on recording data, such as multiple parameters, images, NMR, dipole, saturation data, etc.
Mud logging has become much more complex and demanding in terms of competencies and skills in several related disciplines. It is still based on reservoir assessment and gas monitoring, but now it also includes monitoring of drilling operations, reservoir fluid; the staff analyzes geology, geophysics and geochemistry of rocks to more accurately determine various parameters of the rock formation.
Expansion of services, new opportunities for in-depth analysis of samples, advances in network and telecom systems, computerization, calculation and design of surface sensors, made mud logging stations popular in the 21st century. Thanks to this, mud logging can turn from a one-time service into a permanent information center for downhole data, and become a full-fledged foundation and central core for digitalization of a well, for exploration and drilling.
Mud logging development trends in Russia
Historically, Russia has always provided its own needs for oilfield services. However, now the situation has changed due to the following factors:
- withdrawal of oilfield services companies from the vertically integrated oil companies, dissolution of the focal branch ministry (the Ministry of the Oil and Gas Industry existed in the USSR),
- lack of state funding for R&D of domestic companies and any state support (contrarily, oilfield services were massively supported in the USSR, this trend became common nowadays for other countries too),
- admission to the Russian strategic market of foreign oilfield services and production companies,
- uncontrolled import of Hi-Tech equipment.
The chain of these events led to the entry of foreign companies into the Russian market, which in the 2010s allowed them to seize a share of up to 40%. Additional factors were the purchase by Russian oilfield service giants of some big Russian players and the technological lag of Russian companies in some types of modern mud logging (MWD, LWD, directional drilling), seismic exploration, offshore production, manufacturing of modern digital equipment and advanced software (currently it is part of any equipment).
The danger of the technological lag of Russian oil and gas service companies lies in the fact that this situation turns them into customers of western services and, thus, leads to preservation of the domestic market in favor of strengthening positions of developed countries (in particular, the United States in the oilfield services market). The production base collapse that we have been observing during these 30 years and the lack of government programs to stimulate Russian production has weakened demand, and in this regard, production of domestic high-tech equipment to serve the oil and gas industry until recently.
This situation negatively affected oil companies while imposing of the American sanctions, blocking their access to advanced hardware and software, narrowing competition (after worsening relations with the West, large US businesses are leaving Russia), which can lead to higher prices for access to foreign services and Russian own production and service bases do not have the needed resources and market incentives to grow production rates and increase service standards.
At the end of the 1980s, Russia fully provided itself with mud logging services in oil and gas and occupied 15% in the world market, then by 2010 when foreign companies entered the market, Russia's share in the world fell to 1% (China rose to 10%), and in the domestic market — up to 40% of mud logging services were taken by world leaders.
This continued until 2014, but at the moment, USА and EU sanctions are a powerful incentive for modernization and transformation of the Russian oilfield services industry, which, with proper support, can again turn into a world-class high-tech industry. Tighter sanctions give a powerful impetus to the development of domestic equipment and technologies needed by the oil and gas industry. In the oil and gas service, import replacement with help of large diversified holdings has become popular, as they own modern geophysical services and successfully compete with American service corporations.
Today, the state and oil and gas companies are changing their attitude to the domestic market development and plan to regain their lost positions in the world in offshore developments, LWD services, geosteering and oil and gas engineering.
Here is what some geophysical equipment and instrumentation manufacturers say about the prospects for Russian oilfield services companies:
“Currently, few people in the world assume that Russia can compete with such powerful world market leaders as Schlumberger, Halliburton, BHGE and Weatherford. It is also clear that no one is waiting for Russian business with open arms in this market and no one is going to give in to the benefits. Significant investments and coordinated efforts will be required, both by the state and oil and gas service corporations.
According to preliminary estimates, in the next 5 years, at least 10-15 billion rubles will be required for the modernization and re-equipment of services, the creation of the Federal Geophysical Center for Metrology and Certification, the development of critical service technologies. The expected revenue in the global market by 2023 is estimated at $5-7 billion / year, with growth in subsequent years. On the one hand, vertically integrated oil companies, which have not invested 25 years in the development of Russian geophysics, can be a source of investment in the development of services, on the other hand, service holding companies at the expense of revenues in the global market, as well as the state, which should ensure zero taxes for 5 years, will be profitable for all participants and this may be an asymmetric response to sanctions.
Based on world experience, the strategy of returning to the global service market can start, for example, from the Middle East, by consolidating in this market 1-2 powerful service holding companies equipped with the latest technology and possessing unique competencies in geophysics, drilling and other types service, and having experience in competing with American corporations. Oil and gas companies engaged in the exploration and development of oil and gas fields abroad, with or without geophysics, could pull up domestic geophysical companies.”
LAPTEV V. V.
Candidate of Engineering Sciences,
geophysical instrumentation development manager
At the same time, as elsewhere in the world, mud logging service in Russia is now under some bilateral pressure because of market competition and strict budget tender restrictions for mining companies (mud logging is a relatively standard service and companies can be easily replaced). This forces suppliers to lower prices, while customers themselves are waiting for offers of innovative and advanced services and modern high-tech equipment.
As a result, a paradoxical situation has developed on the mud logging market in Russia.
Currently, all over the world, mud logging services are gaining an important and central role in drilling and exploration services, this is accompanied by expansion of the service line, application of numerous methods and technologies, modern high-tech equipment, software and involvement/training of specialists who combine several traditional disciplines.
This fundamental change of the role played by mud logging was not noticed by Russian customers (in most cases, they only set standard requirements for the basic volume of services provided by a mud logging team, which no longer correspond to the realities and capabilities of today), moreover, it did not lead any sufficient increase in the cost of mud logging services (due to which it would be possible to cover the costs of updating the technical and knowledge-based funds of the service provider), but, on the contrary, it led to a catastrophic drop in prices for mud logging services. All this contributes to the ongoing deterioration in the quality of service and logistical support of mud logging brigades, which are not able to pay appropriate salaries to highly qualified specialists, intensify scientific research and invest in advanced equipment and technologies.
This quotation was taken from a review of a mud logging service provider who participated in a special survey conducted by J’son & Partners Consulting while preparing this report:
List restrictions (technical, legal and other) that do not allow your company to provide mud logging services directly to the Russian vertically integrated oil companies: (if any)
“The low price of services does not allow mud logging companies to develop, and therefore small companies, which do not have their bases and sufficient technical support have flooded the market. They are conquering the market through dumping. Large companies cannot compete with small companies in price and are forced to increase not the quality, but the volume of provided services. As a result, wages and equipment quality are significantly reduced. Mud logging turned not into a drilling control system, but into a conditionally statistical, in most cases useless station, the main purpose of which is to be at the drilling site in accordance with the law.”
Mud logging development trends in the world
Key mud logging development trends in the world:
- Tools are becoming more portable and quick.
- Digital equipment and electronics with advanced features.
- Transfer of laboratory tests to the site (Real Time).
- Improving the accuracy and performance of LWD data collection.
- Automation of drilling, MWD, and drilling fluid composition selection.
- Integration of mud logging and other research into software and into the driller’s cabin.
- Engineers with data processing functions and knowledge of petrophysics, geochemistry, geomechanics, etc.
- Strong communication channels, computerization, data transmission methods, application of IoT/AI platforms.
- Mud logging — information center for exploration and drilling, the core of well digitalization.
- Integration of data from different technologies and sources, combination of methods. Replacing core analysis with others. Now you can select the optimal technology and research methods.
- Reduced analysis time and NPT due to new tools: Gas WD, Gamma Ray WD, Element WD, Chemostratigraphy WD, Pressure (PWD), Petrography While Drilling, etc.
- Application of expanded geochemistry, chemostratigraphy; combination of drilling, geological navigation and mud logging, geochemistry, wireline logging and mud logging, gas and geochemistry, laboratory research — to improve reservoir modeling, reduce NPT, optimize well placement and completion.
- Advanced mud logging allows more efficient implementation of hydraulic fracturing programs, development of unconventional fields and multiple wells.
- Ongoing robotization, process automation, remote control.
Key points of growth and development prospects of mud logging technology
A standard package of mud logging services today is an integral part of any drilling operation for both maintenance and exploration with drilling.
The services combine (in different variations) practical geology, geophysics, geochemistry, petrophysics, drilling technologies and engineering techniques, geosteering, MWD and LWD equipment in order to provide a more complete reservoir model, optimize well placement, productivity and safety. The results are repeatedly confirmed by correlation and comparison with other types of research, such as well logging, measurement while drilling, well testing, PVT analysis, etc.
Companies can now select the best technology and research methods based on the quality of the achievable results, cost and specified drilling conditions.
Due to the fact that the mud logging complex is standard throughout the world (companies offer a set of basic equipment and sensors for measuring mandatory indicators available with use of mud logging methods), there are practically no unique services in the industry and the basic differences between mud logging service companies are:
- Particular equipment life time in each specific country or company.
- Use of advanced equipment that allows to analyze parameters that were not previously available (for example, geochemical), or at previously impossible speed and sensitivity (for example, ED-XRF technology or the Geospect dual-sensor gas analyzer, which replaces chromatographs or supplements them).
- Use of “the most compact equipment”, which makes it possible to use high class laboratory quality scientific instruments in the field (for example, a cascade laser gas analyzer used by DWL).
- Application of “the most versatile equipment”, which provides reliable service with high technical characteristics and is the de facto “industry standard” (for example, industry leaders — Baseline, Bloodhound, Drager, Emerson, Leco, HAWK, etc.).
- Application (development) of proprietary software for combining data from various sources, interpreting indirect indicators, as well as constructing geological models of the reservoir, as well as stimulation programs for wells, geosteering, etc.
- Application of a large number of advanced services based on the “single window” principle, which depend on the available equipment and advanced software for analyzing recorded indicators.
- Application of algorithms for big data analysis, machine learning and artificial intelligence in order to improve constructing geological models of reservoirs and accelerate the acquisition of information while drilling.
In accordance with the global development trends in mud logging, the main growth points will be the provision and development of equipment and software that provide:
- mud logging time reduction,
- mud logging automation by various methods through recorded data integration,
- improvement of the geological model, programs of geosteering, stimulation of the well, development of problematicoil fields,
- inclusion of amud logging scoreboard in the driller’s cabin.
- and the newest area is the robotization of manual operations related to CWD. Two companies have already presented their solutions. It is expected that the number of such attempts will increase in the near future. At the same time, some companies are trying to add FEWD with subsequent tools for data storage, comparison and machine learning, which will revolutionize the current mud logging processes and provide a new breakthrough in the speed of drilling and related FEWD.
This newsletter was prepared by J'son & Partners Consulting. We make every effort to provide factual and forecast data that fully reflect the situation and are available at the time of the release of the material. J'son & Partners Consulting reserves the right to revise the data after the publication of new official information by individual players.
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Detailed results of the research presented in the full version of the Report:
“Technologies and suppliers of equipment and services for mud logging in Russia and the world”
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, BASIC REPORT PARAMETERS
1. MUD LOGGING DEVELOPMENT TRENDS AND PROSPECTS IN THE WORLD AND IN RUSSIA
1.1. TRENDS IN THE GLOBAL OILFIELD SERVICES MARKET
1.2. TASKS AND PROBLEMS OF MUD LOGGING IN THE WORLD
1.2.1. Minimizing the time and cost of drilling
1.2.2. Position of mud logging in oilfield services and assessment of the mud logging market
1.2.3. Mud logging and mud logging data
1.2.4. Classification of mud logging data
1.2.5. Types of data collected
1.2.6. MWD, LWD and FEWD
1.2.8. Mud logging
18.104.22.168. Information recorded and analyzed during mud logging
1.3. PROBLEMS, GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OF MUD LOGGING IN THE WORLD AND IN RUSSIA
1.3.1. Problems and role of mud logging
1.3.2. Goals of mud logging
1.3.3. Objectives of mud logging
1.4. EVOLUTION OF MUD LOGGING SERVICES IN THE WORLD
1.4.1. Evaluation of reservoirs
1.4.2. Gas monitoring
1.4.3. Monitoring operations
1.4.4. Security monitoring
1.5. MUD LOGGING TRENDS AND PROSPECTS IN THE WORLD
1.6. MUD LOGGING TRENDS AND PROSPECTS IN RUSSIA
1.6.1. Oilfield services market trends in Russia
1.6.2. Assessment of the market for oilfield services and downhole and mud logging services in Russia
1.6.3. The main trends in the mud logging market
2. ANALYSIS OF MUD LOGGING SOLUTIONS AND TECHNOLOGIES IN THE WORLD AND IN RUSSIA
2.1. OVERVIEW OF WORLD STANDARDS IN THE SEGMENT OF GEOLOGICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL CONTROL AND THEIR COMPARISON WITH RUSSIAN STANDARDS (RD 153-39.0-069-01 AND GOST R 53375-2016 OIL AND GAS WELLS. GEOLOGICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS)
2.1.1. International experience in standardizing equipment for mud logging
2.1.2. China. The way to adapt international standards
2.1.3. Russia. National standards and their application
2.1.4. Drilling operations data standards (WITS/WITSML)
2.1.5. Standards for mud logging. Conclusions
3. OVERVIEW OF COMPANIES PROVIDING EQUIPMENT AND SOFTWARE FOR GEOLOGICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL CONTROL SERVICES IN THE WORLD
3.1. MANUFACTURERS OF SPECIALIZED EQUIPMENT (ASSEMBLED MUD LOGGING STATIONS, PROCESS EQUIPMENT, GAS ANALYSIS EQUIPMENT, GEOLOGICAL EQUIPMENT)
3.1.1. 271 Containers
3.1.2. AMETEK/MOCON, Inc.
3.1.3. Crowcon Detection Instruments
3.1.4. Company 4
3.1.5. Company 5
3.1.6. Company 6
3.1.7. Company 7
3.1.8. Company 8
3.1.9. Company 9
3.1.10. Company 10
3.1.11. Company 11
3.1.13. Mudlogging Systems
3.1.14. National Oilwell Varco (NOV)
3.1.15. Oil Field Instrumentation
3.1.16. Company 16
3.1.17. Company 17
3.1.18. Company 18
3.1.19. Company 19
3.1.20. Company 20
3.1.21. Company 21
3.1.22. Company 22
3.1.23. Company 23
3.2. SOFTWARE PROVIDERS (DATA COLLECTION/PROCESSING SYSTEMS, DATA TRANSMISSION AND VISUALIZATION SYSTEMS, DATA ANALYSIS SYSTEMS)
3.2.1. Geologix Limited
3.2.2. HMG Software
3.2.4. Nabors Industries
3.2.6. Company 6
3.2.7. Company 7
3.2.8. Company 8
3.2.9. Company 9
3.2.10. Company 10
3.2.11. Company 11
3.3. COMPANIES PROVIDING GEOLOGICAL CONTROL SERVICES (VARIOUS COMBINATIONS OF ACTIVITIES ARE POSSIBLE)
4. OVERVIEW OF COMPANIES PROVIDING EQUIPMENT AND SOFTWARE FOR GEOLOGICAL CONTROL SERVICES IN RUSSIA
4.1. MANUFACTURERS OF SPECIALIZED EQUIPMENT (GTI STATIONS ASSEMBLED , PROCESS EQUIPMENT, GAS ANALYSIS EQUIPMENT, GEOLOGICAL EQUIPMENT)
4.1.3. Company 3
4.1.4. Company 4
4.1.5. Company 5
4.1.6. Company 6
4.2. SOFTWARE PROVIDERS (DATA COLLECTION/PROCESSING SYSTEMS, DATA TRANSMISSION AND VISUALIZATION SYSTEMS, DATA ANALYSIS SYSTEMS)
4.2.1. Company 1
4.3. COMPANIES PROVIDING SERVICES FOR GEOLOGICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL CONTROL (VARIOUS COMBINATIONS OF ACTIVITIES ARE POSSIBLE)
4.3.3. Soyuzneftegaz Servis
4.3.4. Group of companies STERH, Geoservice
4.3.5. CJSC AMT
4.3.6. Company 6
4.3.7. Company 7
4.3.8. Company 8
4.3.9. Company 9
4.3.40. Company 40
4.3.41. Company 41
5. FORMING PORTFOLIOS OF COMPANIES WHICH RECEIVED A POSITIVE FEEDBACK (WITH REGARD TO THEIR EXPERIENCE IN APPLICATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS FOR SPECIFIC TASKS AND UNIQUE UNIVERSAL RESOURCES)
6.1. GENERAL ANALYSIS OF TECHNOLOGIES USED WHILE PROVIDING GEOLOGICAL CONTROL SERVICES
6.1.1. Mud logging and well data
6.1.2. Evolution and trends of mud logging services in the world
6.1.3. Features of mud logging development in Russia
6.1.4. General analysis of technologies used while providing geological control services
22.214.171.124. Mud logging station requirements
126.96.36.199. General scheme of mud logging equipment
188.8.131.52. General description of the main mud logging services
6.2. ASSESSMENT OF THE GEOLOGICAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY ADAPTATION LEVEL
List of pictures
Pic. 1. The global market for oilfield services, billion dollars, 2015 — 2026
Pic. 2. The global market for mergers and acquisitions in the oil and gas industry, million dollars, 2010 — 2015
Pic. 3. Decrease in capital expenditures of oil and gas companies, including in exploration and production (Exploration and production / E&P), billion dollars, 2014 — 2016
Pic. 4. Growth of investments in oil and gas companies after the price collapse in 2014 — 2016 to the pre-crisis level by 2025
Pic. 5. Drilling and logging (left) and information collected during drilling (right)
Pic. 6. Position of mud logging services in the cost of downhole research: сost and time for performing services per 1 well
Pic. 7. The global mud logging market, 2006 — 2015
Pic. 8. The international mud logging market, shares of the largest players, 2005 — 2014
Pic. 9. Revenues from LWD services of the world's largest oilfield services companies, 2005 — 2013 (left) and the Big Four market share for LWD services (right)
Pic. 10. Assessment of the Shlumberger's (SLB) share by various services, including mud logging (it is a part of Surface Logging Group), 2016.
Pic. 11. Change in the share of integrated services of the world's largest oilfield service companies, 2010 — 2020
Pic. 12. Position of mud logging in the overall structure of oilfield services
Pic. 13. Units and number of mud logging service teams in the Chinese company CNPC, in the world, outside of China 2016
Pic. 14. Fundamental problems in hydrocarbon exploration — determination of reservoir parameters (left). When is it better to complete the well? (right)
Pic. 15. Well Logging — data integration for reservoir modeling
Pic. 16. Principles for interpreting well data to determine reservoir parameters
Pic. 17. Mud logging station equipment of the past
Pic. 18. Modern mud logging station equipment
Pic. 19. Development Trends and Evolution of mud logging equipment in the world
Pic. 20. Reduction of drilling time in days by 50% and increase in drilling speed by 2 times thanks to an IDW
Pic. 21. Automatic remote ARM collector
Pic. 22. Staff, cost and HSE risk reduction potential with the introduction of ARM
Pic. 23. The concept of an automated mud logging service system (AMLS) from the X company
Pic. 24. Scheme of automated sample loading (left), and an NGS/NMR device
Pic. 25. Share of Russian mud logging companies in the domestic and foreign markets, 2010
Pic. 26. Comparison of revenues of oilfield services companies: Russia and the world, 2008. Expansion of China's position in the world. Return of domestic companies to the world market, 2017
Pic. 27. Share of imported equipment in the oil and gas sectors, 2015
Pic. 28. The Russian market of oilfield services, 2003 — 2019
Pic. 29. Markets for mud logging services in the USA, Russia, China, 2017
Pic. 30. Volume (left) and structure (right) of the mud logging service market, 2018
Pic. 31. Ratio of daily rates of drilling contractors and other services (extreme right — mud logging, less than 2% of drilling). Collage related to the “Worst Jobs in the World” rating (right).
Pic. 32. General scheme and types of equipment for mud logging (various equipment is possible)
Pic. 33. General scheme of mud logging technologies (advanced services)
Pic. 34. Geochemistry technologies for advanced analysis of rocks and fluids for mud logging: equipment
Pic. 35. Technologies for advanced gas analysis for the mud logging: equipment
List of tables
Tab. 1. Key global information resources related to national and international standards for materials and equipment
Tab. 2. ISO Standards
Tab. 3. Specialized equipment manufacturers
Tab. 4. Software development companies
Tab. 5. Companies providing services for drilling control
Tab. 6. Specialized equipment manufacturers in the Russian Federation
Tab. 7. Software development companies in the Russian Federation
Tab. 8. Companies providing services for drilling control in the Russian Federation
Tab. 9. Hardware requirements for basic and advanced mud logging service